Computer Science ›› 2018, Vol. 45 ›› Issue (6): 135-140.doi: 10.11896/j.issn.1002-137X.2018.06.023

• Information Security • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Blind Watermarking Algorithm for Digital Image Based on Fibonacci Scrambling in Wavelet Domain

WANG Qian1, YU Lai-hang1,4, CAO Yan2, ZHANG Lei3, QIN Jie1, YE Hai-qin1   

  1. College of Computer Science and Technology,Zhoukou Normal University,Zhoukou,Henan 466001,China1;
    College of Computer Science and Technology,Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics,Nanjing 211106,China2;
    School of Computer and Information Engineering,Henan University,Kaifeng,Henan 475004,China3;
    College of Computer Science and Technology,Faculty of Electronic Information and Electrical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology,Dalian,Liaoning 116024,China4
  • Received:2017-03-01 Online:2018-06-15 Published:2018-07-24

Abstract: For the copyright protection problem of digital image,a blind digital watermarking scheme based on Fibonacci scrambling in wavelet domain was proposed.The region of interest (ROI) of original image is used as the watermarking source to improve the concealment of twatermark.In the watermark embedding process,the original image is divided into blocks,Fibonacci scrambling and discrete wavelet transform (DWT) are performed for each block,and low frequency sub-band is selected for watermark embedding.At the same time,DWT is also executed for the watermark,the low frequency sub-band is selected,and the scrambled matrix is obtained by Fibonacci scrambling,which will be embedded into the block on the main image.In the watermark extraction process,according to the secret key set in the embedding process,the inverse Fibonacci scrambling and inverse DWT process are used to extract the watermark.The simulation results show that the watermarking scheme has high security,robustness and concealment.

Key words: Digital image, Blind watermarking, Fibonacci scrambling, Discrete wavelet transform, Watermark embedding, Watermark extraction

CLC Number: 

  • TP391
[1]ZHU X S,CHEN Y M,DONG H H,et al.Robust Double Domain Watermarking for Binary Document Image[J].Chinese Journal of Computers,2014,37(6):1352-1364.(in Chinese)
[2]CHEN Q,WENG X F.Novel blind image watermarking based on pseudo Zernike moments[J].Application Research of Computers,2016,33(9):2810-2818.(in Chinese)
[3]CHEN Y,ZHENG H Y,DING Q L.Watermarking Algorithm Based on Zernike Moments and NSCT-SVD[J].Computer Scien-ce,2016,43(8):84-88.(in Chinese)
[4]HE C,ASHANF M R,TAMAKI S,et al.A New Robust Watermarking Algorithm for Digital Image Based on -SVD and Fibonacci Scrambling[J].Technical Report of Ieice Sat,2013,11(2):53-58.
[5]ZHOU Y,ZENG F Z,ZHAO H M.Double Video Watermarking Algorithm Based on Compressive Sensing[J].ComputerScien-ce,2016,43(5):132-139.(in Chinese)
[6]VARGHESE J,SUBASH S,HUSSAIN O B,et al.An improved digital image watermarking scheme using the discrete Fourier transform and singular value decomposition[J].Turkish Journal of Electrical Engineering & Computer Sciences,2016,24(5):3432-3447.
[7]YAN F,WANG L Z,SHI L,et al.Digital Image Watermarking Algorithm Based on DWT and PNN[J].Natural Science Journal of Xiangtan University,2016,38(3):89-93.(in Chinese)
[8]WANG X,WANG P,ZHANG P,et al.A norm-space,adaptive,and blind audio watermarking algorithm by discrete wavelet transform[J].Signal Processing,2013,93(4):913-922.
[9]MEHTA R,RAJPAL N.A hybrid semi-blind gray scale image watermarking algorithm based on DWT-SVD using human visualsystem model[C]//Sixth International Conference on Contemporary Computing.IEEE:Piscataway,NJ,2013:163-168.
[10]ANSARI R,DEVANALAMATH M M,MANIKANTAN K, et al.Robust Digital image Watermarking Algorithm in DWT-DFT-SVD domain for color images[C]//International Confe-rence on Communication,Information & Computing Technology.IEEE:Piscataway,NJ,2012:1-6.
[11]KESHAVARZIAN R.A new ROI and block based watermarking scheme using DWT [C]//Electrical Engineering.IEEE:Piscataway,NJ,2012:1323-1328.
[12]GHAZALI N H,MANAF A A,SULONG G.High Capacity Watermarking Technique for Medical Images Using Fibonacci Decomposition[J].International Journal of Applied Engineering Research,2015,10(2):3431-3437.
[13]CAI Y J,NIU Y G,SU Q T.Blind watermarking algorithm for color images based on DWT-SVD and Fibonacci transformation[J].Application Research of Computers,2012,29(8):3025-3028.(in Chinese)
[14]DUBOLIA R,SINGH R,BHADORIA S S,et al.Digital Image Watermarking by Using Discrete Wavelet Transform and Discrete Cosine Transform and Comparison Based on PSNR[C]//International Conference on Communication Systems and Network Technologies.IEEE:Piscataway,NJ,2011:593-596.
[15]YE T Y.Perfectly blind self-embedding robust quantization-based watermarking scheme in DWT-SVD domain[J].Journal of Image and Graphics,2012,17(6):45-51.(in Chinese)
[16]ZHU L L,ZHANG J X,WANG B.Digital Watermarking for 3D Mesh Model Based on Roughness[J].Journal of Chongqing University of Technology (Natural Science),2014,28(2):87-91.(in Chinese)
[1] XING Wen-bo, DU Zhi-chun. JPEG Image File Header Forensics [J]. Computer Science, 2019, 46(6A): 353-357.
[2] XING Wen-bo, DU Zhi-chun. Digital Image Forensics for Copy and Paste Tampering [J]. Computer Science, 2019, 46(6A): 380-384.
[3] ZHANG Jing-xiao, XU Feng-sheng, LIU Xin-hua and ZHANG Li-hua. Outer Inverse P-sets and Double Information Camouflage-Recovery for Digital Image and its Application [J]. Computer Science, 2016, 43(2): 250-253, 292.
[4] YANG Rui-da, XIA Shao-jie and TANG Yi-ping. Research on Key Technologies of 3D Fingerprint Based on Monocular Multi-view Machine Vision [J]. Computer Science, 2015, 42(Z6): 184-189.
[5] ZHANG Yong-hong. Algorithm of Digital Image Encrypting Based on Multi-chaotic Sequence Generated by Rational Bézier Surface [J]. Computer Science, 2015, 42(4): 136-140, 146.
[6] LIU Jing and WEN Xian-bin. 3D Digital Watermarking Technology Based on Genetic Algorithm in Wavelet Domain [J]. Computer Science, 2014, 41(1): 300-302.
[7] DING Chang,YIN Qing-bo and LU Ming-yu. Summary of Partial Differential Equation (PDE) Method on Digital Image Processing [J]. Computer Science, 2013, 40(Z11): 341-346.
[8] . Study of Spatial Information Hiding Algorithm Based on MSB and HVS [J]. Computer Science, 2012, 39(9): 89-93.
[9] KANG Xiao-bing,WEI Sheng-min. Adaptive Threshold-based Detection Algorithm for Image Copy-move Forgery [J]. Computer Science, 2011, 38(3): 295-299.
[10] . License Plate Location Method Based on Image Region Segmentation [J]. Computer Science, 2011, 38(12): 281-283.
[11] TANG Yao,CAO Jian-zhong,LIU Bo,ZHOU Zuo-feng. FPGA Design of Wavelet Transform in Spatial Aircraft Image Compression [J]. Computer Science, 2010, 37(9): 261-263.
[12] . [J]. Computer Science, 2009, 36(2): 268-270.
[13] . [J]. Computer Science, 2008, 35(12): 224-228.
[14] . [J]. Computer Science, 2008, 35(11): 203-206.
[15] . [J]. Computer Science, 2008, 35(10): 208-211.
Full text



[1] . [J]. Computer Science, 2018, 1(1): 1 .
[2] LEI Li-hui and WANG Jing. Parallelization of LTL Model Checking Based on Possibility Measure[J]. Computer Science, 2018, 45(4): 71 -75, 88 .
[3] XIA Qing-xun and ZHUANG Yi. Remote Attestation Mechanism Based on Locality Principle[J]. Computer Science, 2018, 45(4): 148 -151, 162 .
[4] LI Bai-shen, LI Ling-zhi, SUN Yong and ZHU Yan-qin. Intranet Defense Algorithm Based on Pseudo Boosting Decision Tree[J]. Computer Science, 2018, 45(4): 157 -162 .
[5] WANG Huan, ZHANG Yun-feng and ZHANG Yan. Rapid Decision Method for Repairing Sequence Based on CFDs[J]. Computer Science, 2018, 45(3): 311 -316 .
[6] SUN Qi, JIN Yan, HE Kun and XU Ling-xuan. Hybrid Evolutionary Algorithm for Solving Mixed Capacitated General Routing Problem[J]. Computer Science, 2018, 45(4): 76 -82 .
[7] ZHANG Jia-nan and XIAO Ming-yu. Approximation Algorithm for Weighted Mixed Domination Problem[J]. Computer Science, 2018, 45(4): 83 -88 .
[8] WU Jian-hui, HUANG Zhong-xiang, LI Wu, WU Jian-hui, PENG Xin and ZHANG Sheng. Robustness Optimization of Sequence Decision in Urban Road Construction[J]. Computer Science, 2018, 45(4): 89 -93 .
[9] LIU Qin. Study on Data Quality Based on Constraint in Computer Forensics[J]. Computer Science, 2018, 45(4): 169 -172 .
[10] ZHONG Fei and YANG Bin. License Plate Detection Based on Principal Component Analysis Network[J]. Computer Science, 2018, 45(3): 268 -273 .