Computer Science ›› 2020, Vol. 47 ›› Issue (2): 269-275.doi: 10.11896/jsjkx.190400013

• Information Security • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Improvement of DPoS Consensus Mechanism Based on Positive Incentive

CHEN Meng-rong1,LIN Ying 1,2,LAN Wei1,SHAN Jin-zhao1   

  1. (School of Software,Yunnan University,Kunming 650091,China)1;
    (Key Laboratory for Software Engineering of Yunnan Province,Kunming 650091,China)2
  • Received:2019-04-02 Online:2020-02-15 Published:2020-03-18
  • About author:CHEN Meng-rong,born in 1994,post-graduate.Her main research interests indude combination of information security,block chain and consensus mechanism;LIN Ying,born in 1973,Ph.D,associate professor.Her main interests indude information security.
  • Supported by:
    This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (61462092, 61379032, 61662085), Key Laboratory Project of Software Engineering in Yunnan Province (2017SE102), Yunnan University Data-driven Software Engineering Provincial Science and Technology Innovation Team Project (2017HC012), Scientific Research Foundation Project of Yunnan Education Department (2019Y0009), Yunnan University Graduate Research Innovation Fund Project (2018Z087), Scientific Research Innovation and Entrepreneurship Training (Science and Technology Innovation) for Yunnan University Students (201804066).

Abstract: Consensus mechanism is the key of block chain technology.In the DPoS consensus mechanism,each node can indepen-dently determine its trusted authorization nodes,and these authorization nodes will take turns to generate new blocks for rapid consensus verification.But DPoS still has security problems such as inactive voting and node corruption.Aiming at these two problems,this paper proposed an improved DPoS scheme based on reward incentive.The evoting rewardr is used to encourage nodes to actively participate in the process of voting and the ereporting rewardr is used to encourage common nodes to report bribery nodes.The Matlab simulation experiments show that the introduction of voting reward improves the voting enthusiasm of nodes.Compared with the original DPoS consensus mechanism,in which the number of voting nodes accounts for 45% to 50%,the introduction of two different voting reward methods increases the number of voting nodes to 65% to 70% and 55% to 60% respectively.Compared with the original DPoS consensus mechanism,in which the proportion of nodes that do not accept bribes will decrease as the bribery of malicious nodes increases,the introduction of the reporting reward method makes the proportion of choosing reporting nodes increase significantly,and the proportion of choosing reporting nodes can increase to 54% when the number of voting rounds is 20.The experiment results show that the improved DPoS mechanism can not only make more nodes vote,but also enhance the bribery resistance of the common nodes,so that the probability of malicious nodes becoming the “trustee” becomes smaller,thus ensuring the security of the network.

Key words: Blockchain, Consensus mechanism, Delegated proof-of-stake, Incentive mechanism, Algorithm improvement, Game theory

CLC Number: 

  • TP309
[1]WANG P,LIU X,CHEN J,et al.Poster:QoS-Aware Service Composition Using Blockchain-Based Smart Contracts[C]∥2018 IEEE/ACM 40th International Conference on Software Engineering:Companion Proceedings (ICSE-Companion).IEEE Computer Society,2018.
[2]MERMER G B,ZEYDAN E,ARSLAN S S.An overview of blockchain technologies:Principles,opportunities and challenges[C]∥Signal Processing & Communications Applications Conference.2018.
[3]MENDLING J,WEBER I,AALST W V D,et al.Blockchains for Business Process Management-Challenges and Opportunities[J].ACM Transactions on Management Information Systems,2018,9(1):1-4.
[4]SINGH M,SINGH A,KIM S.Blockchain:A game changer for securing IoT data[C]∥2018 IEEE 4th World Forum on Internet of Things (WF-IoT).IEEE,2018.
[5]YUAN Y,WANG F Y.Towards blockchain-based intelligent transportation systems[C]∥2016 IEEE 19th International Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITSC).IEEE,2016.
[6]CHO H.ASIC-Resistance of Multi-Hash Proof-of-Work Mechanisms for Blockchain Consensus Protocols[J].IEEE Access,2018,PP(99):1-1.
[7]ZHENG Z,XIE S,DAI H,et al.An Overview of Blockchain Technology:Architecture,Consensus,and Future Trends[C]∥An Overview of Blockchain Technology:Architecture,Consensus,and Future Trends.IEEE Computer Society,2017.
[8]HUANG J,KONG L,CHEN G,et al.Towards secure industrial IoT:Blockchain system with credit-based consensus mechanism.IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics,2019,15(6):3680-3689.
[9]XUE T,YUAN Y,AHMED Z,et al.Proof of Contribution:A Modification of Proof of Work to Increase Mining Efficiency[C]∥IEEE Computer Software & Applications Conference.IEEE Computer Society,2018.
[10]GRAMOLI V.From blockchain consensus back to byzantine consensus[OL].https://doi.org/10.1016/j.future.2017.09.023.
[11]NGUYEN C T,HOANG D T,NGUYEN D N,et al.Proof-of-stake consensus mechanisms for future blockchain networks: fundamentals, applications and opportunities.IEEE Access,2019,7:85727-85745.
[12]SPASOVSKI J,EKLUND P.Proof of stake blockchain:per-formance and scalability for groupware communications[C]∥Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Management of Digital EcoSystems.ACM,2017:251-258.
[13]NGUYEN C T,HOANG D T,NGUYEN D N,et al.Proof-of-stake consensus mechanisms for future blockchain networks:Fundamentals,applications and opportunities[J].IEEE Access,2019,7:85727-85745.
[14]LI W,ANDREINA S,BOHLI J M,et al.Securing proof-of-stake blockchain protocols[M]∥Data Privacy Management,Cryptocurrencies and Blockchain Technology.Cham:Springer,2017:297-315.
[15]Peter G,Kiayias A,Russell A.Stake-bleeding attacks on proof-of-stake blockchains[C]∥2018 Crypto Valley Conference on Blockchain Technology (CVCBT).IEEE,2018.
[16]YUAN Y,NI X C,ZENG S,et al.Blockchain Consensus Algorithms:The State of the Art and Future Trends[J].Acta Automatica Sinica 2018,44(11):93-104.
[17]CHIU J,KOEPPL T.Incentive compatibility on the blockchain[R].Bank of Canada,2018.
[18]LARS B,KIAYIAS A,KOUTSOUPIAS E,et al.Reward Sharing Schemes for Stake Pools[J].arXiv:1807.11218,2018.
[19]TANG C B,YANG Z,ZHENG Z L,et al.Game Dilemma Analysis and Optimization of PoW Consensus Algorithm [J].Acta Automatica Sinica,2017,43(9):1520-1531.
[20]LIU Y R,KE J M,JIANG H,et al.Improvement of the PoS Consensus Mechanism in Blockchain Based on Shapley Value [J].Journal of Computer Research and Development,2018, 55(10):2208-2218.
[21]MANSHAEI M H,JADLIWALA M,MAITI A,et al.A Game-Theoretic Analysis of Shard-Based Permissionless Blockchains[J].IEEE Access,2018,PP(99):1-1.
[22]WANG L X Y,QIN B,QIAO X.Development and Security of Blockchain Consensus Mechanism[J].ZTE Technology Journal,2018,24(6):12-16.
[23]FANG W D,ZHANG W X,PAN T,et al.Cyber Security in Blockchain:Threats and Countermeasures[J].Journal of Cyber Security,2018,3(2):87-104.
[24]KANG J,XIONG Z,NIYATO D,et al.Toward Secure Block-chain-Enabled Internet of Vehicles:Optimizing Consensus Management Using Reputation and Contract Theory[J].IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology,2019,PP(99):1-1.
[25]LUO Y,CHEN Y,CHEN Q,et al.A New Election Algorithm for DPos Consensus Mechanism in Blockchain[C]∥2018 7th International Conference on Digital Home (ICDH).IEEE,2019.
[26]WANG W,HOANG D T,XIONG Z,et al.A Survey on Consensus Mechanisms and Mining Management in Blockchain Networks[J].arXiv:1805.02707,2018.
[27]HAN X,YUAN Y,WANG F Y.Security Problems on Block-chain:The State of the Art and Future Trends[J].Acta Automatica Sinica,2019(1):206-225.
[28]SONG L H,LI T,WANG Y L.Applications of Game Theory in Blockchain [J].Journal of Cryptologic Reseatch,2019,6(1):100-111.
[1] MAO Ying-chi, ZHOU Tong, LIU Peng-fei. Multi-user Task Offloading Based on Delayed Acceptance [J]. Computer Science, 2021, 48(1): 49-57.
[2] ZHANG Yan-mei, LOU Yin-cheng. Deep Neural Network Based Ponzi Scheme Contract Detection Method [J]. Computer Science, 2021, 48(1): 273-279.
[3] SHAO Wei-hui, WANG Ning, HAN Chuan-feng, XU Wei-sheng. Integrated Emergency-Defense System Based on Blockchain [J]. Computer Science, 2021, 48(1): 287-294.
[4] LI Ying, YU Ya-xin, ZHANG Hong-yu, LI Zhen-guo. High Trusted Cloud Storage Model Based on TBchain Blockchain [J]. Computer Science, 2020, 47(9): 330-338.
[5] LIU Shuai, GAN Guo-hua, LIU Ming-xi, FANG Yong, WANG Shou-yang. Multi-subblock Incentive Consensus Mechanism Based on Topology and Distribution Mechanism [J]. Computer Science, 2020, 47(7): 268-277.
[6] LU Ge-hao, XIE Li-hong and LI Xi-yu. Comparative Research of Blockchain Consensus Algorithm [J]. Computer Science, 2020, 47(6A): 332-339.
[7] ZHANG Qi-wen, WANG Zhi-qiang and ZHANG Yi-qian. Trust Collection Consensus Algorithm Based on Gossip Protocol [J]. Computer Science, 2020, 47(6A): 391-394.
[8] LIN Xu-dan, BAO Shi-Jian, ZHAO Li-xin and ZHAO Chen-lin. Design and Performance Analysis of Automotive Supply Chain System Based on Hyperledger Fabric [J]. Computer Science, 2020, 47(6A): 546-551.
[9] ZHANG Qi-ming, LU Jian-hua, LI Shou-zhi and XU Jian-dong. Building Innovative Enterprise Customer Service Technology Platform Based on Blockchain [J]. Computer Science, 2020, 47(6A): 639-642.
[10] BAO Jun-bo, YAN Guang-hui, LI Jun-cheng. SIR Propagation Model Combing Incomplete Information Game [J]. Computer Science, 2020, 47(6): 230-235.
[11] YE Shao-jie, WANG Xiao-yi, XU Cai-chao, SUN Jian-ling. BitXHub:Side-relay Chain Based Heterogeneous Blockchain Interoperable Platform [J]. Computer Science, 2020, 47(6): 294-302.
[12] XIE Ying-ying, SHI Jian, HUANG Shuo-kang, LEI Kai. Survey on Internet of Things Based on Named Data Networking Facing 5G [J]. Computer Science, 2020, 47(4): 217-225.
[13] WANG Hui, LIU Yu-xiang, CAO Shun-xiang, ZHOU Ming-ming. Medical Data Storage Mechanism Integrating Blockchain Technology [J]. Computer Science, 2020, 47(4): 285-291.
[14] FENG Tao, JIAO Ying, FANG Jun-li, TIAN Ye. Medical Health Data Security Model Based on Alliance Blockchain [J]. Computer Science, 2020, 47(4): 305-311.
[15] PAN Ji-fei,HUANG De-cai. Blockchain Dynamic Sharding Model Based on Jump Hash and Asynchronous Consensus Group [J]. Computer Science, 2020, 47(3): 273-280.
Viewed
Full text


Abstract

Cited

  Shared   
  Discussed   
[1] LEI Li-hui and WANG Jing. Parallelization of LTL Model Checking Based on Possibility Measure[J]. Computer Science, 2018, 45(4): 71 -75 .
[2] SUN Qi, JIN Yan, HE Kun and XU Ling-xuan. Hybrid Evolutionary Algorithm for Solving Mixed Capacitated General Routing Problem[J]. Computer Science, 2018, 45(4): 76 -82 .
[3] ZHANG Jia-nan and XIAO Ming-yu. Approximation Algorithm for Weighted Mixed Domination Problem[J]. Computer Science, 2018, 45(4): 83 -88 .
[4] WU Jian-hui, HUANG Zhong-xiang, LI Wu, WU Jian-hui, PENG Xin and ZHANG Sheng. Robustness Optimization of Sequence Decision in Urban Road Construction[J]. Computer Science, 2018, 45(4): 89 -93 .
[5] SHI Wen-jun, WU Ji-gang and LUO Yu-chun. Fast and Efficient Scheduling Algorithms for Mobile Cloud Offloading[J]. Computer Science, 2018, 45(4): 94 -99 .
[6] ZHOU Yan-ping and YE Qiao-lin. L1-norm Distance Based Least Squares Twin Support Vector Machine[J]. Computer Science, 2018, 45(4): 100 -105 .
[7] LIU Bo-yi, TANG Xiang-yan and CHENG Jie-ren. Recognition Method for Corn Borer Based on Templates Matching in Muliple Growth Periods[J]. Computer Science, 2018, 45(4): 106 -111 .
[8] GENG Hai-jun, SHI Xin-gang, WANG Zhi-liang, YIN Xia and YIN Shao-ping. Energy-efficient Intra-domain Routing Algorithm Based on Directed Acyclic Graph[J]. Computer Science, 2018, 45(4): 112 -116 .
[9] CUI Qiong, LI Jian-hua, WANG Hong and NAN Ming-li. Resilience Analysis Model of Networked Command Information System Based on Node Repairability[J]. Computer Science, 2018, 45(4): 117 -121 .
[10] WANG Zhen-chao, HOU Huan-huan and LIAN Rui. Path Optimization Scheme for Restraining Degree of Disorder in CMT[J]. Computer Science, 2018, 45(4): 122 -125 .