Computer Science ›› 2020, Vol. 47 ›› Issue (7): 268-277.doi: 10.11896/jsjkx.200200027

• Information Security • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Multi-subblock Incentive Consensus Mechanism Based on Topology and Distribution Mechanism

LIU Shuai1,2, GAN Guo-hua3, LIU Ming-xi4, FANG Yong1,2, WANG Shou-yang1,2   

  1. 1 Academy of Mathematics and Systems Science,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100190,China
    2 School of Economics and Management,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100190,China
    3 School of Computer & Communication Engineering,University of Science and Technology Beijing,Beijing 100083,China
    4 Institutes of Science and Development,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100190,China
  • Received:2020-02-03 Online:2020-07-15 Published:2020-07-16
  • About author:LIU Shuai,born in 1993,postgraduate.Her main research interests include blockchain and financial engineering and risk management.
    FANG Yong,born in 1974,Ph.D,research associate,Ph.D supervisor.His main research interests include financial engineering and risk management and operations management.
  • Supported by:
    This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (71631008) and Big Data and Blockchain Lab Project

Abstract: First of all,this paper proposes an modified consensus mechanism based on the classic PoW (Proof of Work) consensus mechanism by changing the condition of take the miners’ blocks into blockchain and income distribution strategy.To be specific,on the one hand,according to the rule of this modified consensus mechanism,the first generated sub-chain made up of N sub-blocks will be integrated into the main chain,which is different from PoW,the modified consensus mechanism replaces the simple single chain structure of PoW with a more complex network structure;on the other hand,the modified consensus mechanism improves on the revenue distribution strategy of the traditional consensus mechanism,its distribution strategy is divided into three steps in order to improve the expected earnings of miners with low computational power,so as to encourage those miners with low computational power to actively participate in mining and supervise the safety of blockchain.In addition,the network structure introduced by the modified consensus mechanism enables miners to have more strategies of mining.This paper also discusses the influence of selecting different mining strategies,splitting calculation power of malicious miners and collusion on the safety and efficiency of the block chain.Finally,a variety of market scenarios are set up to simulate the improved algorithm so as to analyze the mining benefits of various miners under different market characteristics,which are hoping to guide miners.

Key words: Blockchain, Consensus, Inspire miner, Mining strategy

CLC Number: 

  • TP301.6
[1] NAKAMOTO S.Bitcoin:A peer-to-peer electronic cash system [EB/OL].(2008-11-01) [2018-09-30].https://bitcoin.org/bitcoin.pdf.
[2] LIU M X,GAN G H,CHENG Y K,et al.The development status and prospect of blockchain consensus mechanism[J].Operations Research Transactions,2020,24(1):23-39.
[3] DU M X,MA X F,ZHANG Z,et al.A review on consensus algorithm of blockchain[C]//2017 IEEE International Conference on Systems,Man and Cybernetics (SMC).Banff,2017:2567
[4] Quantum Mechanic.Proof of stake[EB/OL].(2011-07-11) [2018-09-30].https://bitcointalk.org /index.php?topic=27787.
[5] LARMER D,KASPER L,SCHUH F.BitShares 2.0:Financial smart contract platform [EB/OL].(2015-11-01)[2018-09-30].http://docs.bitshares.eu/downloads/bitshares-financial-platform.pdf.
[6] BENTOV I,LEE C,MIZRAHI A,et al.Proof of activity:Ex-tending bitcoin’s proof of work via proof of stake [J].ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review,2014,42(3):34-37.
[7] RENL.Proof of stake velocity:Building the social currency ofthe digital age[EB/OL].(2018-04-10) [2018-09-30].https://assets.coss.io/documents/whitepapers/reddcoin.pdf.
[8] Intel.Proof of elapsed time[EB/OL].(2016-12-16) [2018-09-30].https://intelledger.github.io /introduction.html.
[9] JUELS A,KALISKI B S.PORs:Proofs of retrievability forlarge files [C]//Proceedings of the 14th ACM Conference on Computer and Communications Security.Alexandria:ACM,2007:584-597.
[10] MILLER A,JUELS A,SHI E,et al.Permacoin:Repurposing bitcoin work for long-term data preservation [C]//2014 IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy.IEEE Computer Society,2014,1:475-490.
[11] GILAD Y,HEMO R,MICALI S,et al.Algorand:Scaling byzantine agreements for cryptocurrencies[C]//Proceedings of the 26th Symposium on Operating Systems Principles.Shanghai,2017:51
[12] CASTRO M,LISKOV B.Practical byzantine fault tolerance[C]//Proceedings of the Third Symposium on Operating Systems Design and Implementation.New Orleans:ACM,1999:1-10.
[13] KOTLA R.Zyzzyva:speculative byzantine fault tolerance[J].ACM SIGOPS Operating Systems Review,2007,41(6):45-58.
[14] AUBLIN P L,MOKHTAR S B,QUEMA V.RBFT:Redundant byzantine fault tolerance [C]//2013 IEEE 33rd International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems.Washington:IEEE Computer Society,2013:297-306.
[15] MILLER A.The honey badger of BFT protocols [C]//Procee-dings of the 2016 ACM SIGSAC Conference on Computer and Communications.Vienna:ACM,2016:31-42.
[16] SOMPOLINSKY Y,ZOHAR A.Secure high-rate transactionprocessing in bitcoin [C]//International Conference on Financial Cryptography and Data Security.Heidelberg:Springer,2015:507-527.
[17] EYAL I,GENCER A E,SIRER E G,et al.Bitcoin-NG:A scalable blockchain protocol [C]//Proceedings of the 13th Usenix Conference on Networked Systems Design and Implementation.2016:45-59.
[18] SOMPOLINSKY Y,LEWENBERG Y,ZOHAR A.Inclusiveblock chain protocols [C]//International Conference on Financial Cryptography and Data Security.Heidelberg:Springer,2015:528-547.
[19] ZHEN Y,YUE M,YU C Z,et al.Zero-determinant strategy for the algorithm optimize of blockchain PoW consensus[C]//2017 36th Chinese Control Conference (CCC).IEEE,2017:1441-1446.
[20] ZHANG R,PRENEEL B.Lay Down the Common Metrics:Evaluating Proof-of-Work Consensus Protocols’ Security[C]//2019 IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy (SP).IEEE,2019:175-192.
[21] KUMAR G,SAHA R,RAI M K,et al.Proof-of-Work Consensus Approach in Blockchain Technology for Cloud and Fog Computing Using Maximization-Factorization Statistics[J].IEEE Internet of Things Journal,2019,6(4):6835-6842.
[22] BAHACK L.Theoretical Bitcoin attacks with less than half of the computational power (draft)[J].arXiv:1312.7013,2013.
[23] LERNER S D.DECOR+HOP:A scalable blockchain protocol[EB/OL].https://scalingbitcoin.org/papers/DECOR-HOP.pdf.
[24] CAMACHO P,LERNER S D.DECOR+LAMI:A scalableblockchain protocol[EB/OL].https://scalingbitcoin.org/he/papers/DECOR-LAMI.pdf.
[25] PASS R,SHI E.Fruitchains:A fair blockchain[C]//Procee-dings of the ACM Symposium on Principles of Distributed Computing(PODC’17).ACM,2017:315-324.
[26] RIZUN P R.Subchains:A technique to scale Bitcoin and improve the user experience[J/OL].https://www.ledgerjournal.org/ojs/index.php/ledger/article/view/40.
[27] ROBERT A,HAMILTON W D.The Evolution of Cooperation[J].Science,1981(211):1390-1396.
[28] HUANG Q B,AN Q W,SU H Q.Study and realization of an improved PBFT algorithm as an ethereum consens mechanism[J].Computer Applications and Software,2017,34(10):288-293,297.
[1] ZHANG Yan-mei, LOU Yin-cheng. Deep Neural Network Based Ponzi Scheme Contract Detection Method [J]. Computer Science, 2021, 48(1): 273-279.
[2] SHAO Wei-hui, WANG Ning, HAN Chuan-feng, XU Wei-sheng. Integrated Emergency-Defense System Based on Blockchain [J]. Computer Science, 2021, 48(1): 287-294.
[3] LI Ying, YU Ya-xin, ZHANG Hong-yu, LI Zhen-guo. High Trusted Cloud Storage Model Based on TBchain Blockchain [J]. Computer Science, 2020, 47(9): 330-338.
[4] LU Ge-hao, XIE Li-hong and LI Xi-yu. Comparative Research of Blockchain Consensus Algorithm [J]. Computer Science, 2020, 47(6A): 332-339.
[5] ZHANG Qi-wen, WANG Zhi-qiang and ZHANG Yi-qian. Trust Collection Consensus Algorithm Based on Gossip Protocol [J]. Computer Science, 2020, 47(6A): 391-394.
[6] LIN Xu-dan, BAO Shi-Jian, ZHAO Li-xin and ZHAO Chen-lin. Design and Performance Analysis of Automotive Supply Chain System Based on Hyperledger Fabric [J]. Computer Science, 2020, 47(6A): 546-551.
[7] ZHAO Xue-yuan, ZHOU Shao-lei, WANG Shuai-lei and YAN Shi. Formation Containment Control of Multi-UAV System Under Switching Topology [J]. Computer Science, 2020, 47(6A): 577-582.
[8] WU Guang-fu, CHEN Ying, ZENG Xian-wen, HE Dao-Jing and LI Jiang-hua. Design and Analysis of Token Model Based on Blockchain Technology [J]. Computer Science, 2020, 47(6A): 603-608.
[9] ZHANG Qi-ming, LU Jian-hua, LI Shou-zhi and XU Jian-dong. Building Innovative Enterprise Customer Service Technology Platform Based on Blockchain [J]. Computer Science, 2020, 47(6A): 639-642.
[10] YE Shao-jie, WANG Xiao-yi, XU Cai-chao, SUN Jian-ling. BitXHub:Side-relay Chain Based Heterogeneous Blockchain Interoperable Platform [J]. Computer Science, 2020, 47(6): 294-302.
[11] XIE Ying-ying, SHI Jian, HUANG Shuo-kang, LEI Kai. Survey on Internet of Things Based on Named Data Networking Facing 5G [J]. Computer Science, 2020, 47(4): 217-225.
[12] WANG Hui, LIU Yu-xiang, CAO Shun-xiang, ZHOU Ming-ming. Medical Data Storage Mechanism Integrating Blockchain Technology [J]. Computer Science, 2020, 47(4): 285-291.
[13] FENG Tao, JIAO Ying, FANG Jun-li, TIAN Ye. Medical Health Data Security Model Based on Alliance Blockchain [J]. Computer Science, 2020, 47(4): 305-311.
[14] PAN Ji-fei,HUANG De-cai. Blockchain Dynamic Sharding Model Based on Jump Hash and Asynchronous Consensus Group [J]. Computer Science, 2020, 47(3): 273-280.
[15] LV Jian-fu,LAI Ying-xu,LIU Jing. Log Security Storage and Retrieval Based on Combination ofOn-chain and Off-chain [J]. Computer Science, 2020, 47(3): 298-303.
Viewed
Full text


Abstract

Cited

  Shared   
  Discussed   
[1] LEI Li-hui and WANG Jing. Parallelization of LTL Model Checking Based on Possibility Measure[J]. Computer Science, 2018, 45(4): 71 -75 .
[2] SUN Qi, JIN Yan, HE Kun and XU Ling-xuan. Hybrid Evolutionary Algorithm for Solving Mixed Capacitated General Routing Problem[J]. Computer Science, 2018, 45(4): 76 -82 .
[3] ZHANG Jia-nan and XIAO Ming-yu. Approximation Algorithm for Weighted Mixed Domination Problem[J]. Computer Science, 2018, 45(4): 83 -88 .
[4] WU Jian-hui, HUANG Zhong-xiang, LI Wu, WU Jian-hui, PENG Xin and ZHANG Sheng. Robustness Optimization of Sequence Decision in Urban Road Construction[J]. Computer Science, 2018, 45(4): 89 -93 .
[5] SHI Wen-jun, WU Ji-gang and LUO Yu-chun. Fast and Efficient Scheduling Algorithms for Mobile Cloud Offloading[J]. Computer Science, 2018, 45(4): 94 -99 .
[6] ZHOU Yan-ping and YE Qiao-lin. L1-norm Distance Based Least Squares Twin Support Vector Machine[J]. Computer Science, 2018, 45(4): 100 -105 .
[7] LIU Bo-yi, TANG Xiang-yan and CHENG Jie-ren. Recognition Method for Corn Borer Based on Templates Matching in Muliple Growth Periods[J]. Computer Science, 2018, 45(4): 106 -111 .
[8] GENG Hai-jun, SHI Xin-gang, WANG Zhi-liang, YIN Xia and YIN Shao-ping. Energy-efficient Intra-domain Routing Algorithm Based on Directed Acyclic Graph[J]. Computer Science, 2018, 45(4): 112 -116 .
[9] CUI Qiong, LI Jian-hua, WANG Hong and NAN Ming-li. Resilience Analysis Model of Networked Command Information System Based on Node Repairability[J]. Computer Science, 2018, 45(4): 117 -121 .
[10] WANG Zhen-chao, HOU Huan-huan and LIAN Rui. Path Optimization Scheme for Restraining Degree of Disorder in CMT[J]. Computer Science, 2018, 45(4): 122 -125 .