Computer Science ›› 2016, Vol. 43 ›› Issue (12): 8-12, 23.doi: 10.11896/j.issn.1002-137X.2016.12.002

Previous Articles     Next Articles

Review on Methods of Operation Planning

CHENG Kai, CHEN Gang, ZHANG Pin and YIN Cheng-xiang   

  • Online:2018-12-01 Published:2018-12-01

Abstract: The quality of operational plan determines the success or failure of a war.The course of action generation is the key to planning which is widely concerned by domestic and foreign researchers.Currently the generation of operation plan faces the problem that the space of action states can neither effectively deal with the uncertainties affecting the implementation effects of the plan nor satisfy the demand of modern war’s nonlinear and uncertainty.So this paper summarized the progress in related research fields from the respects of classic planning and operational planning.Especially for the operational planning problem,traditional,effect based operation and uncertain course of action generation me-thods were discussed systemically.Then the main research directions of these fields were pointend out,which has good significance for operational planning.

Key words: Effect based operation,Uncertainty reasoning,Operation plan,Adaptability,Robustness

[1] Zhang Jie-yong,Yao Pei-yang, Yang Dong-sheng,et al.Approa-ch to organizational course of actions selection based on DINs and PSO[J].Systems Engineering-Theory & Practice,2011,31(10):1985-1993(in Chinese) 张杰勇,姚佩阳,阳东升,等.基于DINs和PSO的组织行动过程选择方法[J].系统工程理论与实践,2011,31(10):1985-1993
[2] Qian Meng,Liu Zhong,Yao Li,et al.Survey of ontological mo-delling of military operation plans[J].Systems Engineering and Electronics,2010,2(5):994-1000,7(in Chinese) 钱猛,刘忠,姚莉,等.作战计划的本体建模研究[J].系统工程与电子技术,2010,32(5):994-1000,7
[3] Antkiewicz R,Gasecki A,Najgebauer A,et al.Stochastic PERT and CAST Logic Approach for Computer Support of Complex Operation Planning[J].Lecture Notes in Computer Science,2010,8:159-173
[4] Ghallab M,Nua D,Traverso P.Automated Planning:theory and Practice[J].Industrial Robot,2005,2(5):42-43
[5] Srivastava B,Kambhampati S.Scaling up Planning by Teasing Out Resource Scheduling[J].Lecture Notes in Computer Scie-nce,1999,1809:172-186
[6] Aylett R S,Petley G J,Chung P W H,et al.AI Planning:Solutions for Real World Problems[J].Knowledge-Based Systems,2000,13(2):61-69
[7] Erol K.Hierarchical Task Network Planning:Formalization,Analysis,and Implementation[D].University of Maryland,1996
[8] Fikes R E,Nilsson N J.STRIPS:A new approach to the application of theorem proving to problem solving[J].Artificial Intelligence,1971,2(3/4):189-208
[9] Lingard A R,Richards E B.Planning parallel actions[J].Artificial Intelligence,1997,99(2):261-324
[10] Rintanen J.Complexity of Planning with Partial Observability[C]∥Proceedings of the Fourteenth International Conference on Automated Planning and Scheduling.2004:345-354
[11] Gu Wen-xiang,Wang Gai-ge,Yin Ming-hao,et al.Research and Development of Plangragph Based on Heuristic State Search[J].Computer Science,2009,36(11):1-9(in Chinese) 谷文祥,王改革,殷明浩,等.图规划框架下的启发式搜索的研究进展[J].计算机科学,2009,36(11):1-9
[12] Kautz H,McAllester D,Selman B.Encoding plans in propositional logic[C]∥Proc.KR-96.Boston,MA,1996
[13] Tate A,Drabble B,Kirby R.O- Plan2:An Open Architecture for Command,Planning and Control[J].Intelligent Scheduling,1994:213-239
[14] Schattenberg B.Hybrid Planning & Scheduling[D].Ulm Uni-versity,2009
[15] Nau D S,Cao Yue,Lotem A,et al.SHOP and M-SHOP:Planning with ordered task decomposition[R].University of Maryland,2000
[16] Nau D S,Au T C,Ilghami O,et al.SHOP2:An HTN planning system[J].Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research,2003,20(1):379-404
[17] Weld D S.An introduction to least-commitment planning[J].AI Magazine,1994,15(4):27-61
[18] Boukhtouts A,Berger J,Guitouni A,et al.Description and Analy-sis of Military Planning Systems[R].Defence R&D Canada-Valcartier,2006
[19] Fikes R E,Nilsson N J.STRIPS:A new approach to the application of theorem proving to problem solving[J].Artificial Intelligence,1971,2(3/4):189-208
[20] Falzon L.Using Bayesian network analysis to support centre of gravity analysis in military planning[J].European Journal of Operational Research,2006,0(2):629-643
[21] Du Zheng-jun.Modeling and Resolving Method of Course of Action Planning under Antagonism[D].Changsha:National University of Defense Technology,2012(in Chinese) 杜正军.对抗条件下作战行动序列规划问题建模与求解方法[D].长沙:国防科学技术大学,2012
[22] Guo Ying.Research on Backwards Generated Goals for Planning[D].Changchun:Jilin University,2011(in Chinese) 郭瑛.反向产生中间目标的规划算法研究[D].长春:吉林大学,2011
[23] Elder R J.Effects-Based Operations:A command philosophy[J].Air & Space Power Journal,2007,1(1):10-17
[24] Silverman B G,Bharathy G,Nye B,et al.Modeling factions for‘effects based operations’,part II:behavioral game theory[J].Comput Math Organ Theory,2008,4(2):120-155
[25] Guo Qi-sheng,Meng Qing-jun,Zhi Zhi-gang,et al.State-spaceand Application in Effects-based Operations Modeling[J].Journal of System Simulation,2008,20(2):270-271,0(in Chinese) 郭齐胜,孟庆均,郅志刚,等.状态空间方程在基于效果作战建模中的应用[J].系统仿真学报,2008,20(2):270-271,280
[26] Wagenhals L W,Levis A H.Modeling Support of Effects-Based Operations in War Games [C]∥Proceedings of the 7th Command and Control Research and Development Symposium.Naval Post Graduate School,Monterey,2002
[27] Pachowicz P W,Wagenhals L W,Pham J,et al.Building and Ana-lyzing Timed Influence Net Models with Internet-Enabled Pythia [R].System Architectures Laboratory Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering,2008
[28] Lemmer J F,Gossink D.Recursive noisy- or:A rule for estimating complex probabilistic causal interactions[J].IEEE Transactions on Systems,Man and Cybernatics,2004,4(6):2252-2261
[29] Kristensen L M,Mechlenborg P,Zhang Lin,et al.Model-based development of a course of action scheduling tool[J].Int J Softw Tools Technol Transfer,2008,0:5-14
[30] Falzon L,Priest J.The Centre of Gravity Network Effects Tool:Probabilistic Modelling for Operational Planning[R].DSTO Information Sciences Laboratory,2004
[31] Dai Xiang,Liu Zhong,Qiao Shi-dong,et al.Course of action programming method for multiple aerial vehicles cooperative attack[J].Systems Engineering and Electronics,2012,4(7):1406-1411(in Chinese) 代祥,刘忠,乔士东,等.多飞行器协同攻击的行动序列规划方法[J].系统工程与电子技术,2012,34(7):1406-1411
[32] Zhang Zui-liang.Methods for Conducting Military Strategic Ope-rational Analysis[M].Beijing:Military Science Press,2009(in Chinese) 张最良.军事战略运筹分析方法[M].北京:军事科学出版社,2009
[33] Pan Guan-sen,Cai You-fei.Research on operational option analy-sis method[J].Military Operations Research and Systems Engineering,2012,6(3):19-22(in Chinese) 潘冠霖,蔡游飞.作战选项分析方法研究[J].军事运筹与系统工程,2012,26(3):19-22
[34] Smith E A.Effects Based Operations[M].Beijing:Military Scie-nce Press,2007(in Chinese) Edward A.Smith.基于效果作战[M].北京:军事科学出版社,2007
[35] Smith E A.Complexity,Networking,and Effects-Based Approaches to Operations[M].Beijing:National Defence Industry Press,2010(in Chinese) Smith E A.复杂性、联网和基于效果的作战方法[M].北京:国防工业出版社,2010
[36] Rosen J A,Smith W L.Influence Net Modeling with CausalStrengths:An Evolutionary Approach[C]∥1996 Command and Control Research and Technology Symposium.1996
[37] Zhu Yan-guang,Zhu Yi-fan.Research on target selection me-thod of joint fire strike based on influence network[J].Military Operations Research and Systems Engineering,2010,4(3):64-69(in Chinese) 朱延广,朱一凡.基于影响网络的联合火力打击目标选择方法研究[J].军事运筹与系统工程,2010,24(3):64-69
[38] Wang Ai-wen,Yang Min,Duan Hua-lei.Risk modeling and ana-lysis based on casual Bayesian network[J].Systems Engineering and Electronics,2013,35(5):1023-1030(in Chinese) 王爱文,杨敏,段华蕾.基于因果贝叶斯网络的风险建模与分析[J].系统工程与电子技术,2013,35(5):1023-1030
[39] Rafi M F,Zaidi A K,Levis A H.Optimization of actions in activation timed influence nets[J].Informatica,2009,33(3):285-296
[40] Zaidi A K,Mansoor F,Papantoni-Kazakos P.Theory of Influe-nce Networks[J].Journal of Intelligent and Robotic Systems,2010,60(3):457-491
[41] Zhu Y G,Lei Y L.Stochastic timed influence nets[C]∥2010 International Conference on Computer Application and System Modeling.Taiyuan,2010:V12-634-V12-638
[42] Haider S,Levis A H.Modeling Time-varying Uncertain Situations Using Dynamic Influence Nets[J].International Journal of Approximate Reasoning,2008,49:488-502
[43] Papantoni-Kazakos P,Zaidi A K,Rafi M F.An Algorithm for Activation Timed Influence Nets[C]∥IEEE International Conference on Information Reuse and Integration.Las Vegas,2008:319-324
[44] Cheng Kai,Zhang Hong-jun,Zhang Rui,et al.Calculation of ope-ration task effectiveness based on extended timed influence nets[J].Systems Engineering and Electronics,2012,34(12):2492-2497(in Chinese) 程恺,张宏军,张睿,等.基于扩展时间影响网络的作战任务效能计算方法[J].系统工程与电子技术,2012,34(12):2492-2497
[45] Cheng Kai,Zhang Hong-jun,Zhang Rui.A Task-resource Allocation Method Based on Effectiveness[J].Knowledge-Based Systems,2013,7(1):196-202
[46] Haider S,Levis A H.Effective Course-of- Action Determination to Achieve Desired Effects[J].IEEE Transactions On Systems Man and Cybernetics Part A:Systems and Humans,2007,37(6):1140-1150
[47] Levis A H,Haider S.Finding effective courses of action using particle swarm optimization[C]∥IEEE World Congress on Computational Intelligence.2008:1135-1140
[48] Helsinki A J.The systems concepts in military operations-discussion of critique[C]∥IEEE International Systems Conference(SysCon).2013
[49] Humbert M.Adopt the Effects-Based Approach to Operations?[J].Defense Nationale et Securite Collective,2008,64:102-112
[50] Du Zheng-jun,Chen Chao,Jiang Xin.Modeling and solution of course of action based on influence net and sequential game[J].Systems Engineering-Theory & Practice,2013,33(1):215-222(in Chinese) 杜正军,陈超,姜鑫.基于影响网络与序贯博弈的作战行动序列模型与求解[J].系统工程理论与实践,2013,33(1):215-222
[51] Du Zheng-jun,Chen Chao,Jiang Xin.Modeling and solution me-thod of course of action based on influence net and multi-stage games with incomplete information[J].Journal of NationalUniversity of Defense and Technology,2012,4(3):63-67(in Chinese) 杜正军,陈超,姜鑫.基于影响网络与不完全信息多阶段博弈的作战行动序列模型及求解方法[J].国防科技大学学报,2012,4(3):63-67
[52] Levchuk G M,Levchuk Y N,Pattipati K R,et al.Normative Design of Project-Based Organizations—Part III:Modeling Congruent,Robust,and Adaptive Organizations[J].IEEE Transactions On Systems Man and Cybernetics Part A:Systems and Humans,2004,34(3):337-350
[53] Mou Liang.Dynamic Adaptive Optimization Methodology of C2 Organization Structure under Uncertainty Mission Environment[D].Changsha:National University of Defense Technology,2011(in Chinese) 牟亮.不确定使命环境下C2组织结构动态适应性优化方法研究[D].长沙:国防科学技术大学,2011
[54] Corban B,Philemon S,Andrew A,et al.Robust Mission Planning[J].Military Operations Research,2011,6(4):5-24
[55] Wu Yun-peng,Huang Jin-cai,Zhang Wei-ming,et al.Planning mo-deling and state reasoning in competitive situation[J].Computer Engineering and Applications,2011,7(26):35-41(in Chinese) 武云鹏,黄金才,张维明,等.对抗条件下的计划生成过程建模及状态推理[J].计算机工程与应用,2011,47(26):35-41
[56] Li Wei-sheng.Plan recognition method based on intelligent planning[J].Journal of Chongqing University of Posts and Telecommunications (Natural Science Edition),2009,21(4):538-543(in Chinese) 李伟生.基于智能规划的计划识别方法研究[J].重庆邮电大学学报(自然科学版),2009,21(4):538-543
[57] Hong J.Plan Recognition through Goal Graph Analysis[J].Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research,2001,15(1):1-30
[58] Zhou Yun,Huang Jiao-min,Huang Ke-li.A Study on Impact of “Deep Green” on Command and Control[J].Fire Control & Command Control,2013,38(6):1-5(in Chinese) 周云,黄教民,黄柯棣.美国“深绿”计划对指挥控制的影响[J].火力与指挥控制,2013,38(6):1-5

No related articles found!
Full text



[1] LEI Li-hui and WANG Jing. Parallelization of LTL Model Checking Based on Possibility Measure[J]. Computer Science, 2018, 45(4): 71 -75, 88 .
[2] XIA Qing-xun and ZHUANG Yi. Remote Attestation Mechanism Based on Locality Principle[J]. Computer Science, 2018, 45(4): 148 -151, 162 .
[3] LI Bai-shen, LI Ling-zhi, SUN Yong and ZHU Yan-qin. Intranet Defense Algorithm Based on Pseudo Boosting Decision Tree[J]. Computer Science, 2018, 45(4): 157 -162 .
[4] WANG Huan, ZHANG Yun-feng and ZHANG Yan. Rapid Decision Method for Repairing Sequence Based on CFDs[J]. Computer Science, 2018, 45(3): 311 -316 .
[5] SUN Qi, JIN Yan, HE Kun and XU Ling-xuan. Hybrid Evolutionary Algorithm for Solving Mixed Capacitated General Routing Problem[J]. Computer Science, 2018, 45(4): 76 -82 .
[6] ZHANG Jia-nan and XIAO Ming-yu. Approximation Algorithm for Weighted Mixed Domination Problem[J]. Computer Science, 2018, 45(4): 83 -88 .
[7] WU Jian-hui, HUANG Zhong-xiang, LI Wu, WU Jian-hui, PENG Xin and ZHANG Sheng. Robustness Optimization of Sequence Decision in Urban Road Construction[J]. Computer Science, 2018, 45(4): 89 -93 .
[8] LIU Qin. Study on Data Quality Based on Constraint in Computer Forensics[J]. Computer Science, 2018, 45(4): 169 -172 .
[9] ZHONG Fei and YANG Bin. License Plate Detection Based on Principal Component Analysis Network[J]. Computer Science, 2018, 45(3): 268 -273 .
[10] SHI Wen-jun, WU Ji-gang and LUO Yu-chun. Fast and Efficient Scheduling Algorithms for Mobile Cloud Offloading[J]. Computer Science, 2018, 45(4): 94 -99, 116 .