Computer Science ›› 2021, Vol. 48 ›› Issue (11): 12-27.doi: 10.11896/jsjkx.210600152

• Blockchain Technology • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Survey of Crowdsourcing Applications in Blockchain Systems

LI Yu1, DUAN Hong-yue1, YIN Yu-yu1, GAO Hong-hao2   

  1. 1 School of Computer Science,Hangzhou Dianzi University,Hangzhou 310018,China
    2 School of Computer Engineering and Science,Shanghai University,Shanghai 200444,China
  • Received:2021-06-21 Revised:2021-08-20 Online:2021-11-15 Published:2021-11-10
  • About author:LI Yu,born in 1989,Ph.D,post-doctoral researcher,is a member of China Computer Federation.Her main research interests include crowdsourcing,spatial recommendation,database optimization,and cloud computing.
    YIN Yu-yu,born in 1980,Ph.D professor,master supervisor,is a member of China Computer Federation.His main research interests include edge computing,service computing and formal method.
  • Supported by:
    National Key Research and Development Project (2020YFB2103805),National Natural Science Foundation of China (61802098,61802093),Natural Science Foundation of Zhejiang Province (LY21F020018) and Fundamental Research Funds for the Provincial Universities of Zhejiang (GK199900299012-025).

Abstract: Blockchain technology can be extensively applied in diverse services,ranging from online micro-payment,supply chain tracking,digital forensics,health-care record sharing to insurance payment.Extending the technology to the crowdsourcing,we can obtain a verifiable and traceable crowdsourcing systems.Emerging research in crowdsourcing applications exploits blockchain technology to optimize the task assignment and reward payment using various consensus protocols and blockchain techniques,which can provide additional security,automatic,verifiable and traceable crowdsourcing platforms.In this paper,we conduct a systematic survey of the key components of crowdsourcing blockchain and compare a number of popular blockchain applications.In particular,we first give an architecture overview of popular crowdsourcing-blockchain systems by analyzing their network structures and protocols.Then,we discuss variant consensus protocols for crowdsourcing blockchains,and make comparisons among different consensus algorithms.Finally,we look forward to the future research problems in this field,and provide a large number of references.

Key words: Blockchain, Consensus protocols, Crowdsourcing, Privacy protection

CLC Number: 

  • TP399
[1]NAKAMOTO S.Bitcoin:A peer-to-peer electronic cash system[OL].,2008.
[2]WOOD G.Ethereum:A secure decentralisedgeneralised transaction ledger[OL].Ethereum project yellow paper 151 (2014):1-32.
[3]HOWE J.The rise of crowdsourcing[J].Wired Magazine,2006,14(6):1-4.
[4]Upwork,Mountain View,CA,USA.Jun.2019[OL].
[5]Amazon Mechanical Turk.Jun.2019[OL].
[6]DIMITRIOS G K,HELEN C L,MICHAEL X,et al.Toward a Blockchain-Enabled Crowdsourcing Platform[J].IT Professional Magazine,2019,21(5):18-25.
[7]MAURO C,SANDEEP K E,CHHAGAN L,et al.A Survey on Security and Privacy Issues of Bitcoin[J].IEEE Communications Surveys and Tutorials,2018,20(4):3416-3452.
[8]XU X W,WEBER I,STAPLES M,et al.A Taxonomy of Blockchain-Based Systems for Architecture Design [C]//IEEE International Conference on Software Architecture(ICSA'17).IEEE,2017.2017:243-252.
[9]YANCHAO S.Query Processing on Blockchain Systems[D].Shanghai:East China Normal University,2020.
[10]ANDROULAKI E,BARGER A,BORTNIKOV V,et al.Hyperleger fabric:a distributed operating system for permissioned blockchains[C]//Proceeding of the 13th EuroSys Conference.2018,30:1-30.
[11]LI W,FENG C,ZHANG L,et al.A Scalable Multi-Layer PBFT Consensus for Blockchain[J].IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems,2021,32(5):1146-1160.
[12]CHASE J M.Quorum whitepaper[R].White Paper,2016.
[13]SZABO N.Smart Contracts:Building Blocks for DigitalMarkets[OL].
[14]STARK J.Making Sense of Blockchain Smart Contracts [OL].,2016.
[15]WANG S,OUYANG L W,YUAN Y,et al.Blockchain-Enabled Smart Contracts:Architecture,Applications,and Future Trends[J].IEEE Transactions on Systems Man Cybernetics-Systems,2019,49(11):2266-2277.
[16]XU X W,PAUTASSO C,ZHUL M,et al.The Blockchain as a Software Connector[C]//2016 13th Working IEEE/IFIP Conference on Software Architecture (WICSA).2016:182-191.
[17]FENG J H,LI G L,FENG J H.A Survey on Crowdsoucing[J].Chinese Journal of Computer,2015,38(9):1713-1726.
[18]SNOW R,CONNOR B O,JURAFSKY D,et al.Cheap and fast-but is it good? Evaluating non-expert annotations for natural language taks[C]//EMNLP.2008:254-263.
[19]SEWRJUGIN A,AST F.The crowdjury,a crowdsourced justice system for the collaborationer[OL].,Accessed June 2019.
[20]YANG P L,LI Q Y,YAN Y B,et al."Friend is Treasure":Exploring and Exploiting Mobile Social Contacts for Efficient Task Offloading[J].IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology,2016,65(7):5485-5496.
[21]JACYNYCZ V,CALVO A,HASSAN S,et al.Betfunding:A distributed bounty-based crowdfunding platformoverethereum[C]//International Conference on Distributed Computing and Artifical Intelligence(DCAI).2016:403-411.
[22]ZHU H,ZHOU Z Z.Analysis and outlook of applications ofblockchain technology to equity crowdfunding in China[J].Financial Innovation,2016,2(1):29.
[23]AMBATI V,VOGEL S,CARBONELL J.Towards task recommendation in micro-task markets[C]//Proceedings of the 25th AAAI Workshop in Human Computaion.San Francisco,USA,2011:80-83.
[24]LIU X,LU M,OOI B,et al.CDAS:A crowdsourcing data analytics system[J].Proceedings of the VLDB Endowment,2012,5(10):1040-1051.
[25]YAN Y,ROSALES R,FUNG G,et al.Active Learning fromcrowds[C]//Proceedings of the 28th International Conference on Machine Learning.Bellevue,USA,2011:1161-1168.
[26]IPEIROTIS P G,PROVOST F,WANG J.Quality management on amazon mechanical turk[C]//Proceedings of the ACM SIGKDD Workshop on Human Computation.Washington,USA,2010:64-67.
[27]DAWID A P,SKENE A M.Maximum likelihood estimation of error-rates using the EM algorithm[J].Applied Statistics,1979,28(1):20-28.
[28]Tangle IOTA 2018.Meet the Tangle[OL].
[29]CHURYUMOV A.Byteball:A Decentralized System for Sto-rage and Transfer of Value[OL].
[30]DEMERS A,GREENE D,HOUSER C,et al.Epidemic algo-rithms for replicated database maintenance[J].ACM SIGOPS Operating Systems Review,1988,22(1):8-32.
[31]MAYMOUNKOV P,MAZIERES D.Kademlia:A peer-to-peer information system based on the xor metric[C]//International Workshop on Peer-to-Peer Systems.Berlin:Springer,2002:53-65.
[32]CASTRO M,LISKOV B.Practical Byzantine fault tolerance[C]//OSDI.ACM,New Orleans,USA,1999:173-186.
[33]LI M,WENG J,YANG A J,et al.CrowdBC:A Blockchain-Based Decentralized Framework for Crowdsourcing[J].IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems,2019,30(6):1251-1266.
[34]TAN L,XIAO H,SHANG X,et al.A Blockchain-based Trusted Service Mechanism for Crowdsourcing System[C]//2020 IEEE 91st Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC2020-Spring).2020:1-6.
[35]GHAFFARIPOUR S,MIRI A.A Decentralized,Privacy-preserving and Crowdsourcing-based Approach to Medical Research[C]//2020 IEEE International Conference on Systems,Man,and Cybernetics (SMC).2020:4510-4515.
[36]LIN C,HE D B,ZEADALLY S,et al.SecBCS:a secure and privacy-preserving blockchain-based crowdsourcing system[J].Science China-Information Sciences,2020,63(3):20-33.
[37]KADADHA M,MIZOUNI R,SINGH S,et al.ABCrowd:An Auction Mechanism on Blockchain for Spatial Crowdsourcing[J].IEEE Access,2020,8:12745-12757.
[38]GU Y G,CHEN J S,WU X H,et al.An Implement of Smart Contract Based Decentralized Online Crowdsourcing Mechanism[C]//Proceedings of the 2018 2nd International Conference on Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence.2018:195-199.
[39]DING Y,CHEN Z,LIN F,et al.Blockchain-based Credit and Arbitration Mechanisms in Crowdsourcing[C]//2019 3rd International Symposium on Autonomous Systems (ISAS).2019:490-495.
[40]WANG S,TAHA A F,WANG J.Blockchain-Assisted Crowd-sourced Energy Systems[C]//2018 IEEE Power & Energy Society General Meeting (PESGM).2018:1-5.
[41]LIU K,CHEN W,ZHANG Z.Blockchain-Empowered Decen-tralized Framework for Secure and Efficient Software Crowdsourcing[C]//2020 IEEE World Congress on Services (SERVICES).Beijing,China,2020.
[42]LU Y,TANG Q,WANG G.On Enabling Machine LearningTasks atop Public Blockchains:A Crowdsourcing Approach[C]//2018 IEEE International Conference on Data Mining Workshops (ICDMW).2018:81-88.
[43]WU Y,TANG S,ZHAO B,et al.BPTM:Blockchain-Based Privacy-Preserving Task Matching in Crowdsourcing[J].IEEE Access,2019,7:45605-45617.
[44]SHENG D,XIAO M,LIU A,et al.CPchain:A Copyright-Preserving Crowdsourcing Data Trading Framework Based on Blockchain[C]//2020 29th International Conference on Computer Communications and Networks.2020.
[45]LIN Y,ZHANG C.Crowdsourcing System Based on Blockchain[C]//2020 IEEE 11th International Conference on Software Engineering and Service Science (ICSESS).2020:98-101.
[46]CHEN Y,YIN H,XIANG Y,et al.CVT:A Crowdsourcing Vi-deo Transcoding Scheme Based on Blockchain Smart Contracts[J].IEEE Access,2020,8:220672-220681.
[47]HAN S Y,XU Z H,ZENG Y X,et al.FLUID:A Blockchain based Framework for Crowdsourcing[C]//Proceedings of the 2019 International Conference on Management of Data,New York:Assoc Computing Machinery.2019:1921-1924.
[48]ZHANG W K,HONG Z C,CHEN W H.Hierarchical Pricing Mechanism With Financial Stability for Decentralized Crowdsourcing:A Smart Contract Approach[J].IEEE Internet of Things Journal,2021,8(2):750-765.
[49]GAO L P,CHENG T,GAO L.TSWCrowd:A DecentralizedTask-Select-Worker Framework on Blockchain for Spatial Crowdsourcing[J].IEEE Access,2020,8:220682-220691.
[50]LU Y,TANG Q,WANG G L,et al.ZebraLancer:Private and Anonymous Crowdsourcing System atop Open Blockchain[C]//IEEE 38th International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems.New York:IEEE,2018:853-865.
[51]FENG W,YAN Z.MCS-Chain:Decentralized and trustworthy mobile crowdsourcing based on blockchain[J].Future Generation Computer Systems-the International Journal of Escience,2019,95:649-666.
[52]XU X L,LIU Q X,ZHANGX Y,et al.A Blockchain-Powered Crowdsourcing Method With Privacy Preservation in Mobile Environment[J].IEEE Transactions on Computational Social Systems,2019,6(6):1407-1419.
[53]ZHU X Y,LI Y,FANG L,et al.An Improved Proof-of-Trust Consensus Algorithm for Credible Crowdsourcing Blockchain Services[J].IEEE Access,2020,8:102177-102187.
[54]YU Y,LIU S M,GUO L,et al.CrowdR-FBC:A DistributedFog-Blockchains for Mobile Crowdsourcing Reputation Management[J].Ieee Internet of Things Journal,2020,7(9):8722-8735.
[55]FERNANDEZ-CARAMES T M,FROIZ-MIGUEZ I,BLANCO-NOVOA O,et al.Enabling the Internet of Mobile Crowdsour-cing Health Things:A Mobile Fog Computing,Blockchain and IoT Based Continuous Glucose Monitoring System for Diabetes Mellitus Research and Care[J].Sensors,2019,19(15):24.
[56]ZHU S,HU H,LI Y,et al.Hybrid Blockchain Design for Privacy Preserving Crowdsourcing Platform[C]//2019 IEEE International Conference on Blockchain (Blockchain).2019:26-33.
[57]ZHAO Y,ZHAO J,JIANG L,et al.Privacy-Preserving Blockchain-Based Federated Learning for IoT Devices[J].IEEE Internet of Things Journal,2021,8(3):1817-1829.
[58]YANG H,WANG G,ZHAI Z,et al.Towards DecentralizedTrust Management Using Blockchain in Crowdsourcing Networks[C]//2020 International Conference on Cyber-Enabled Distributed Computing and Knowledge Discovery (CyberC).2020:23-28.
[59]ZHU S,CAI Z,HU H,et al.zkCrowd:A Hybrid Blockchain-Based Crowdsourcing Platform[J].IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics,2020,16(6):4196-4205.
[60]ZHU X Y.Formal analysis of the DAO exploit[J].Information Technology And Network Security,2021,40(5):13-19.
[61]HAN X,YUAN Y,WANG F Y.Security Problems on Blockchain:The State of the Art and Future Trends[J].Acta Automatica Sinica,2019,45(1):208-225.
[62]LUU L.Making Smart Contracts Smarter[C]//Paper presented at Computer and Communications Security.2016:254-269.
[63]TORRES C F,SCHUTTE J,STATE R,et al.OSIRIS:Hunting for Integer Bugs in Ethereum Smart Contracts[C]//ACSAC.New York:Assoc Computing Machinery,2018:664-676.
[64]TSANKOV P,DAN A,DRACHSLER-COHEN D,et al.Securify:Practical Security Analysis of Smart Contracts[C]//The 2018 ACM SIGSAC Conference.ACM,2018.
[65]GRISHCHENKO I,MAFFEI M,SCHNEIDEWIND C.A se-mantic framework for the security analysis of ethereum smart contarcts[C]//Proceedings of 2018 International Conference on Principles of Security and Trust.Thessaloniki,Greece:Springer,2018:243-269.
[66]ZHAO H,LI X,TAN J C,et al.Research status of smart contract security[J].Information Technology And Network Security,2021,40(5):1-6,19.
[67]AU M H.A New Payment System for Enhancing Location Pri-
vacy of Electric Vehicles[J].IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology,2014,63(1):3-18.
[68]NOETHER S.Ring signature confidential transactions for Mo-nero [OL].
[69]KYUNG-AH S.An efficient ring signature scheme from parings[J].Infomation Sciences,2015,300:63-69.
[70]MIERS I,GARMAN C,GREEN M,et al.Zerocoin:anonymous distributed e-cash from bitcoin[C]//2013 IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy.2013:397-411.
[71]BITANSKY N,CHIESA A,ISHAI Y,et al.Succinct non-interactive arguments via linear interactive proofs[C]//Proceedings of the 2013 Theory of Cryptography.2013:315-333.
[72]SASSON E B,CHIESA A,GARMAN C,et al.Zerocash:Decentralized Anonymous Payments from Bitcoin[C]//2014 IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy.2014:459-474.
[73]ZHANG H R,WANG M Q,LI G S.The development status of frontier technology of blockchain security and privacy protection[J].Information Technology And Network Security,2021,40(5):7-12.
[74]LIU F,YANG J,LI Z B,et al.A secure Multi-Party Computation Protocol for Universal Data Privacy Protection Based on Blockchain[J].Journal of Computer Research and Development,2021,58(2):281-290.
[75]DUAN H,ZHENG Y,DU Y,et al.Aggregating Crowd Wisdom via Blockchain:A Private,Correct,and Robust Realization[C]//2019 IEEE International Conference on Pervasive Computing and Communications.2019:1-10.
[76]CHEN T,LI Z,ZHOU H,et al.Towards Saving Money inUsing Smart Contracts[C]//2018 IEEE/ACM 40th International Conference on Software Engineering:New Ideas and Emerging Technologies Results (ICSE-NIER).2018:81-84.
[77]LI C,PALANISAMY B,XU R,et al.NF-Crowd:Nearly-free Blockchain-based Crowdsourcing[C]//2020 International Symposium on Reliable Distributed Systems (SRDS).2020:41-50.
[78]BENET J.Ipfs-content addressed,versioned,p2p file system[J].arXiv:1407.3561,2014.
[1] LU Chen-yang, DENG Su, MA Wu-bin, WU Ya-hui, ZHOU Hao-hao. Federated Learning Based on Stratified Sampling Optimization for Heterogeneous Clients [J]. Computer Science, 2022, 49(9): 183-193.
[2] FU Yan-ming, ZHU Jie-fu, JIANG Kan, HUANG Bao-hua, MENG Qing-wen, ZHOU Xing. Incentive Mechanism Based on Multi-constrained Worker Selection in Mobile Crowdsourcing [J]. Computer Science, 2022, 49(9): 275-282.
[3] WANG Zi-kai, ZHU Jian, ZHANG Bo-jun, HU Kai. Research and Implementation of Parallel Method in Blockchain and Smart Contract [J]. Computer Science, 2022, 49(9): 312-317.
[4] FU Li-yu, LU Ge-hao, WU Yi-ming, LUO Ya-ling. Overview of Research and Development of Blockchain Technology [J]. Computer Science, 2022, 49(6A): 447-461.
[5] GAO Jian-bo, ZHANG Jia-shuo, LI Qing-shan, CHEN Zhong. RegLang:A Smart Contract Programming Language for Regulation [J]. Computer Science, 2022, 49(6A): 462-468.
[6] MAO Dian-hui, HUANG Hui-yu, ZHAO Shuang. Study on Automatic Synthetic News Detection Method Complying with Regulatory Compliance [J]. Computer Science, 2022, 49(6A): 523-530.
[7] LI Bo, XIANG Hai-yun, ZHANG Yu-xiang, LIAO Hao-de. Application Research of PBFT Optimization Algorithm for Food Traceability Scenarios [J]. Computer Science, 2022, 49(6A): 723-728.
[8] ZHOU Hang, JIANG He, ZHAO Yan, XIE Xiang-peng. Study on Optimal Scheduling of Power Blockchain System for Consensus Transaction ofEach Unit [J]. Computer Science, 2022, 49(6A): 771-776.
[9] WANG Si-ming, TAN Bei-hai, YU Rong. Blockchain Sharding and Incentive Mechanism for 6G Dependable Intelligence [J]. Computer Science, 2022, 49(6): 32-38.
[10] SUN Hao, MAO Han-yu, ZHANG Yan-feng, YU Ge, XU Shi-cheng, HE Guang-yu. Development and Application of Blockchain Cross-chain Technology [J]. Computer Science, 2022, 49(5): 287-295.
[11] YANG Zhen, HUANG Song, ZHENG Chang-you. Study on Crowdsourced Testing Intellectual Property Protection Technology Based on Blockchain and Improved CP-ABE [J]. Computer Science, 2022, 49(5): 325-332.
[12] REN Chang, ZHAO Hong, JIANG Hua. Quantum Secured-Byzantine Fault Tolerance Blockchain Consensus Mechanism [J]. Computer Science, 2022, 49(5): 333-340.
[13] FENG Liao-liao, DING Yan, LIU Kun-lin, MA Ke-lin, CHANG Jun-sheng. Research Advance on BFT Consensus Algorithms [J]. Computer Science, 2022, 49(4): 329-339.
[14] WANG Mei-shan, YAO Lan, GAO Fu-xiang, XU Jun-can. Study on Differential Privacy Protection for Medical Set-Valued Data [J]. Computer Science, 2022, 49(4): 362-368.
[15] CHEN Dan-hong, PENG Zhang-lin, WAN De-quan, YANG Shan-lin. Identification and Segmentation of User Value in Crowdsourcing Platforms:An Improved RFMModel [J]. Computer Science, 2022, 49(4): 37-42.
Full text



No Suggested Reading articles found!